When a company offers dividends and right shares, the stock exchange generally responds to that corporate action with the stock price adjustment of a corresponding company. What is the rationale for stock price adjustment and how is it done? This article is an attempt to answer both of these questions.

Rationale for Stock Price Adjustment

Stock Dividend: Stock Price Adjustment

Right Share Offering: Stock Price Adjustment

Cash Dividend: Stock Price Adjustment

Rationale for Price Adjustment

Most notably five corporate actions lead to stock price adjustment. They are cash dividends, stock dividends, right offering, stock split, and buybacks.

Cash dividends, stock dividends, and buybacks deplete corporate reserves, while the right offering increases corporate reserves. Likewise, stock dividends, right offering, and stock splits increase the number of outstanding shares; while the buybacks decrease the number of outstanding shares.

In a nutshell, these corporate actions outlined above directly affect the reserves and number of outstanding shares of companies. Therefore, price adjustment takes place to reflect these changes in the corporate reserves and outstanding shares.

In addition, stock price adjustment happens to keep the value of stock investment unchanged after any corporate action that results from the alteration of the balance sheet of the company.

Moreover, price adjustment justifies providing actual and accurate stock prices to the new investors deprived of dividends and the right offerings.

Price Adjustment in Case of Stock Dividend

When a company offers a stock dividend, usually a certain percentage of its outstanding shares, the value of the company’s share price is adjusted based on the previous day’s closing price. Principally, the adjustment method of share price primarily rests on the fact that the value of investment no longer is changed after the stock dividend (also bonus shares) offerings.

Value of Investments Before stock dividend (VIB) and Value of Investment After stock dividend (VIA) can be defined as:

VIB = OSB * LTP

VIA = (OSB + OSB * Percentage of Stock Dividend) * ASP

Where,

OSB = number of Outstanding Shares Before stock dividend

LTP = Last Trading Price (Previous Day’s Closing Price)

ASP = Adjusted Stock Price

To hold the assumption of the unchanged value of investment before and after the stock dividend, the following mathematical equality must be satisfied.

Value of Investment Before stock dividend (VIB) = Value of Investment After stock dividend (VIA)

That means,

$$ {VIB} = {VIA}$$

The substitution of corresponding values results in the following mathematical relation.

OSB * LTP = (OSB + OSB * Percentage of Stock Dividend) * ASP

OSB * LTP = OSB (1 + Percentage of Stock Dividend) * ASP

LTP = (1 + Percentage of Stock Dividend) * ASP

Solving for the ASP, we get the formula for Adjusted Stock Price in case of stock dividend as follows:

$$\text{ASP} = \frac {\text{LTP}} {\text{1 + Percentage of Stock Dividend}}$$

That means the formula for adjusted stock price in the case of stock dividends is

$$\text{Adjusted Stock Price} = \frac {\text{Last Trading Price}} {\text{1 + Percentage of Stock Dividend}}$$

Price Adjustment in Case of Right Shares Offerings

The stock price adjustment mechanism in this case is also similar to the case of stock dividends. However, in the case of the right offerings, a company raises additional capital from the existing shareholders. This additional capital raised from existing shareholders also constitutes the investment. So, it is incorporated into the calculation of adjusted stock price.

The incorporation of additional capital takes place directly in the Value of Investment Before right offerings (via addition) and indirectly in the Value of Investment After right offerings.

That means that the equality equation becomes,

Value of Investment Before right offerings (VIB) + Additional Capital Raised (ACR) = Value of Investment After right offerings (VIA)

That means

$$ {VIB + ACR } = {VIA} $$

We can define VIB, ACR, and VIA as follows:

VIB = OSB * LTP

ACR = (OSB * Percentage of Right Offerings) * Per Unit Price of Right Share

VIA = (OSB + OSB * Percentage of Right Offerings) * ASP

Where,

OSB = number of Outstanding Shares Before the right offerings

LTP = Last Trading Price (Previous Day’s Closing Price)

ASP = Adjusted Stock Price

Placing the values in the equality equations VIB + ACR = VIA, we get the following mathematical relation to produce the formula for stock price adjustment in case of right offerings.

OSB * LTP + (OSB * Percentage of Right Offerings) * Per Unit Price of Right Share = (OSB + OSB * Percentage of Right Offerings) * ASP

OSB * ( LTP + Percentage of Right Offerings * Per Unit Price of Right Share) = OSB * ( 1 + Percentage of Right Offerings) * ASP

$$\text{ASP} = \frac {\text{LTP + Percentage of Right Offerings * Per Unit Price of Right Share}} {\text{1 + Percentage of Right Offerings}}$$

That means the formula for adjusted stock price in case of right offerings is

$$\text{Adjusted Stock Price} = \frac {\text{Last Trading Price + Percentage of Right Offerings * Per Unit Price of Right Share}} {\text{1 + Percentage of Right Offerings}}$$

Price Adjustment in Case of Cash Dividend

Stock price adjustment in the case of cash dividend holds a similar analogy to stock dividend. However, the price adjustment in the case of cash dividends is only applicable if the corporation provides more than ten percent of cash dividends as per prevailing rules in Nepal.

In addition, stock splits and buybacks are rare cases in Nepalese corporate scenarios, their detailed analyses of price adjustment mechanisms are ruled out in this article. However, one can apply a similar analogy of price adjustment in the case of stock split and buybacks as well.

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